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The objective of Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers is to disseminate good academic practices and research results of teaching professionals. JETT pretends to become an educational research database to help spreading young researchers works-masters and doctorates students above all- and to serve as an advertising vehicle for works ¨under writing or article handouts¨. Besides, another function for JETT will be the diffusion of new publications through reviews.
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Exploring early childhood education in China: background, development and current issues

Xiaofei Qi

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

China has put great efforts into developing early childhood education and care services. Since 2010 the policy priority has been to develop early childhood education services for 3�6-year-old children before school entry. Evidence of the rapid development of early childhood education in China can be seen in the impressive development of policy, the increase in public investment and the boom in kindergarten participation rates. The demand for qualified early childhood education practitioners is also increasing in China. Private kindergartens are playing a very important role in providing early childhood education services due to the lack of public services. Despite the great progress already made, the development of early childhood education in China is unbalanced and inadequate in terms of its regional and social disparities. There is a huge gap between advanced ideas and kindergarten practices. The consequences of the new two-child policy present a big challenge to the development of early childhood education, and these should be prepared for in advance in terms of providing �Ssufficient⬝ early childhood education services, as well as �Shigh-quality⬝ services to young children and their families.

Early intervention as a dynamic process

Natalia Baranova

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

Early intervention programs in Russia have spanned a short 25-year history. Serving as active participants in the development of Early Intervention programs in various regions of Russia and post-soviet countries and training of professionals has provided us the ability to oversee the progress of the Early Intervention system. This article will go on to present the process through which Early Intervention services have been established and developed. Development of early intervention programs can be considered as a dynamic process, which on the one hand, changes the lives of the families of young children with disabilities, and on another hand, alters the system of support and concrete early intervention services. The development of an early intervention service as a new model of family support is also a dynamic process and these processes mutually influence one another. The article analyzes the process of development on the example of the core principles of early intervention such as: interdisciplinary teamwork, family centered approach, normalization of life, and principle of scientifically reasonable and evidence based practice. Ours observations show that adherence to the principles of early intervention allows for the development of professional teams, thereby providing improvement of quality of the support programs created for children and their families.

National perspectives of early childhood care

Pilar Gútiez Cuevas; Mónica Jiménez Astudillo; Paloma Antón Ares

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

The present systematic review is about concept of Early Intervention, philosophy, evolution, principles and achievements and the needs to consolidate this action recognizing the role of the family as the focus of this process. In this country, Professionals from three fields � Health, Education and Social services � with competence in early childhood matters assist children from 0 to 6 years and their families. It was carried out a Systematic review of early childhood care in Spain. In this manuscript, analyzed the elements that can interfere on early childhood attention, roles, competences and duties, existing resources, training, regulations and precedents that shows the need of coordination and the family attention as to improve the quality of the attention given. In conclusion, the attention of childhood requires the same conditions for all citizens, with services enough and professionals with a high qualification and also a coordinated job.

Home visiting in early intervention: Professionals perception in the north of Portugal

Cristina Filipa Nunes Borges; Ana Paula da Silva Pereira

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

The Early Intervention carried out in the natural context of the child, particularly at home, has been presenting better and growing indicators of benefits, since it is an environment in which the child and family feel more comfortable and in which the professional considers establishing a more positive relationship with the family. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to understand, from the professionals' point of view, the set of benefits and fragilities for the families and for the professional, of Early Intervention support at home. For that purpose, a qualitative methodology was used, using the semi-structured interview as a data collection tool. Professionals report that families feel safer when they are supported in this context because they consider it a demurer and more private environment, thus allowing a greater proximity to the professional. They also consider that parents should be encouraged and empowered to participate actively in the whole support process, while emphasizing the need to enhance their skills and provide them with information and strategies that encourage them to participate. They highlight as fragility of home support, the difficulty of entering families' homes because they feel that they are invading their privacy.

Sense of coherence, hope theory and early intervention: a longitudinal study

Michael Einav; Malka Margalit

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

Active participation in early intervention programs requires mothers to overcome their distress, to stay actively engaged in the intervention and to focus effort on promoting their children�"s future. These day-to-day obligations and demands may affect their wellbeing and self-perceptions. A series of studies were performed on an early intervention program in Israel. The goals of the current study were to return to some of the families who participated in the program several years later, in order to examine their perceptions of the early intervention program while comparing personal (hope, sense of coherence and positive affect) and familial (family climate) resources. The sample consisted of 52 mothers of children with special needs who participated in an early intervention program. They were interviewed and assessed twice � during their participation in the program and 5-12 years afterwards. The questionnaires included the hope scale, the sense of coherence, positive affect and family climate variables. The results demonstrated the stability of the mothers�" personal and familial resources at the two periods. The relations between the sense of coherence and positive affect were mediated by hope. The conclusions highlighted the stability of mothers�" resources, and the importance of the mothers�" hope and their early sense of coherence. The educational implications call for embracing hope strategies and empowering parents�" personal and familial resources in order to enhance effective early intervention.

Children of parents with mental health vulnerability: implications and family-centered support

Ana Fraga; Ana Maria Serrano; Susana Caires

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

World data shows that symptoms of mental health vulnerability in the population are increasing. This scenario leads to children growing up in contexts whose parents have mental health vulnerability. These children are known as �Sforgotten or invisible⬝. In Portugal, Early Childhood Intervention (ECI), based on family-centered practices, is the main support for these children and families. Nevertheless, the eligibility criteria for services include three risk factors additionally to parents mental vulnerability. This research aims to understand the family context of these children and find existing responses on supporting their development and parenting. Based on a qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were made to three mothers with depression, as well as to ECI professionals that support them. The results show that parental mental illness has implications on mothers, children, and the whole family system. It compromises the exercise of parenting, the misunderstanding of parental mental illness, the expression of negative feelings and parentification by children, making them vulnerable to mental illness. These families reveal a higher number of risk factors than protective factors, compromising family´s resilience. Results also demonstrate the need for ECI specialized professional preparation, since this study found gaps concerning knowledge on family-centered practices. Results also suggest the need of coordination between ECI and Mental Health and Psychiatry services, as well as the inclusion of parental mental illness as an independent eligibility criteria for ECI.

Response to Intervention in Kindergarten: supporting foundational and comprehension skills with supplemental instruction

Carmen Sherry Brown

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

Response to Intervention (RtI) is a multi-tier approach to the early identification and support of students with learning needs. Although there is not a single definition or agreed-upon way of implementing RtI, the key features of this approach involve gathering information on students�" skills to help teachers plan and organize instruction, providing evidence-based interventions and supports, and monitoring student progress in learning (Gersten et al., 2008). The Institute of Education Service (IES) published practice guides to offer educators specific evidence-based recommendations for supporting reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. These guides were used as a framework to plan and implement instructional activities that were intended to support the literacy development of students in a kindergarten class.

Situational and personal interaction quality between the caregiver and the child using the GlnA-E evaluation tool

Dörte Weltzien; Janina Eva Strohmer

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

The GlnA-E Evaluation Tool ("Gestaltung von Interaktonsgelegenheiten im Alltag-Evaluation"; see Weltzien et al., 2017) represents the improved version of a video-based observational and reflective tool for research projects in everyday practice. This paper first presents an overview of the theoretical constructs and features (scale and item properties) of GlnA-E's three scales. It then offers situational and personal correlatives of interaction quality in everyday teaching. It turns out that the tool can be employed for a wide range of settings, group situations, and age ranges, and that the caregivers�" interaction-related skills vary widely. A slight positive impact on interaction quality was observed for interactions with younger children (up to four years of age) and so-called "onlookers".

Evaluation of aesthetic listening skills of pre-school children

Selma Korkmaz

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

It is a widely-known reality that a child who has aesthetic listening skills becomes more successful when the �Sknowledge-gathering⬝ phase begins. The objective of this study is to explore whether pre-school children have �Saesthetic listening skill⬝ and their success in predicting, summarizing and relating strategies which are �Saesthetic listening strategies⬝. The study was conducted based on qualitative research approach as a result of which holistic single-case pattern, which is a case-study method, was employed. The study group consisted of 30 children at the age of 5 who were enrolled at pre-school classes under TRNC Ministry of National Education, 1 Turkish language educator, 2 Turkish language teachers, 1 Pre-school educator and 2 Pre-school teachers. Observation technique was used in data collection process and the success of children was measured by asking 3 questions. The data obtained from observation and achievement tests were analyzed using content analysis. In conclusion, it can be claimed that the predicting skills of both girls and boys is developed. However, their summarizing and relating skills are weaker. For this reason, different activities which would improve these skills should be included in pre-school education.

Socio-cultural values provided to pre-school children using traditional children games

Mustafa Yeniasır; Burak Gökbulut

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

With the development of technology, traditional games which had an essential place in the lives of children began to lose their importance and were replaced by computer games. An examination of developed countries shows that their unique traditional games are being protected and, thanks to conscious families are nurtured by national values; thus, they serve an extremely important function in terms of shaping national conscience. The value of traditional children�"s games can be better understood considering the possibility that especially pre-school children can be affected by the artificial and virtual culture imposed by technological devices. Pre-school period is a period when value education in children begins. Information on values is gained at every stage of life. However, the earliest information is acquired through traditional games in the period when personality begins to develop. In this study, 25 children were presented with Cypriot Turkish children�"s games such as hide-and-seek, house, blind man�"s buff, dodge ball and duck duck goose. Then children were urged to play these games and observations were made which was followed by interviews with children to obtain their opinions on games and game processes. In the study, it was seen that children acquired several values required by social life such as respect, courtesy, helping each other, courage, love, protection, honesty, forgiveness, respect for the environment, patience, and obeying rules.

Parents´ attitudes towards children´s adjustment to a pre-school institution

Marija R. Markovic; Anastasija S. Mamutovic; Zorica C. Stanisavljevic Petrovic

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

The aim of this research study is to examine parents´ attitudes towards the process of children´s adjustment to a pre-school institution, as well as towards separation difficulties which are encountered when a child starts attending kindergarten. Research results provide answers to whether parents are familiar with the problems manifested in the children´s adjustment process, as well as with the possibilities of successfully overcoming such issues. The research included 763 parents of pre-school children in the territory of Serbia. The differences in parents´ attitudes have been analysed relative to their sex, education and age. In the course of research the authors resorted to a five-point Likert scale composed of 16 items grouped into the following categories: factors which influence the process of adjustment, indicators of a successfully completed adjustment process and methods for overcoming the issues raised in the process of children´s adjustment to a pre-school institution. Parents believe that children´s satisfaction when they attend kindergarten is a more significant indicator of a successfully completed adjustment process relative to the absence of crying and deprecation, as well as that for the purposes of overcoming the difficulties which occur when children start attending a pre-school institution parents most frequently introduce pre-school teachers to their child´s habits and traits, and later talk with the child about events in the kindergarten. Research results indicate the presence of statistically significant differences in parents´ attitudes relative to their sex, i.e. they indicate that the adjustment period is more stressful for mothers than for fathers.

Use of the holistic model for training evaluation in a preschool teacher training

Elke Elisabeth Eugenia Kleinert-Altamira; Pilar Pineda-Herrero

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

The present article is a case study which evaluated the transfer of training during a teacher training in a preschool institution in Mexico City. It was taken by preschool educators, teachers and assistants, using the holistic model for training evaluation. The method adopted was the evaluative research and two different instruments were applied. Quantitative, the survey; and qualitative, the semi-structure interview. The obtained data came from three different agents: preschool educators, their principal and the trainers. The results were analyzed trilaterally and show a positive transfer of training from the educators, mainly blocked by the lack of time to introduce new changes to their teaching practice and possibly, due to the absence of support from their principal. Trainers think that regular follow ups are necessary to maintain the transfer of training. For its part, the principal observed that educators with long experience in the field were the less ones with an intention to do a transfer. This research, following the results in Mexico, arrives to the main conclusion that the evaluation of the transfer of training from teachers�" trainings in preschool education is incipient. Thus, suggesting that new researches are necessary to consolidate the effectiveness and impact on this type of evaluation.

Continuous transdisciplinary education in order to detect neurodevelopment disorders among five years old

Ivonne Ramírez; Sagrario Pérez de la Cruz; Carolina Maldonado

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

Continuous education is important in order to improve health practices and infant education. The goal of this paper was to evaluate the impact of a trans disciplinary continuous formation model in order to detect neurodevelopment and psychosocial disorders in five and under year old living in Sucre and Chuquisaca provinces. 458 health professionals, technicians, and medical interns were interviewed for this purpose. A survey was made after twenty-five sections of formation during 2016-2017. The questions of the survey were related to topics referred to such a formation section. The findings show the importance of the new topics, the necessity of more formation regarding the diagnosis scales and the knowledge on family and community therapies, this aspect was detected mostly in rural areas, which have less possibilities of accessing to continuous formation. To finish, it is important to point out that the trans disciplinary cyclical formation model allowed refreshing knowledge, sharing experiences, to dialogue different kinds of knowledge, and to integrate collaborative work among peers, so the health service among 5 years old would be optimized.

Professional associations as contributors to the professional development of ECE teachers (Case from Croatia)

Adrijana Visnjic Jevtic

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

This paper is a result of the assumptions of the importance of the professional development of early childhood education (ECE) teachers. Professional development is seen as a developmental process grounded in lifelong learning. While discussing the professional learning community as the optimal support in professional development, the paper discusses the role of professional associations in professional development. Aim of the research was to find teachers�" opinion whether the professional association contribute to their professional development. In order to ensure the best understanding of this problem, a research was conducted with the help of group interviews. Focus group participants were early childhood education teachers (N=6) who are also members of the Association of Preschool Educators �SKrijesnice⬝. The analysis of the results indicated that ECE teachers highly value the need for their professional development. They also emphasize lifelong learning and motivation as prerequisites of professional development. The Association of Preschool Educators is seen as a support in professional development.

Redefining and developing professional competencies for early childhood education and care

Florence Pirard; Marie Housen; Elodie Pools

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

The competences expected from early childhood education and care professionals have evolved significantly in our Western countries following the transformation of services and the affirmation of their educational function. This article is based on action research projects carried out in the Wallonia Brussels Federation (FWB) which integrate an analysis of other education and training systems (France, Flanders, England, Sweden and Quebec). It presents a reflection on the development of professional competencies and their acquisition from the initial training in a holistic approach to education. It notes that a diversity of formations coexists, leading to an absence of clear view on professional skills and profiles. In response to this observation, it proposes a modeling that articulates organizational, relational and reflexive competencies that are needed for the development of a professional posture. That modeling is presented as a grid of analysis that can enable better understanding of the complexity of early education and care in its many dimensions (working with children, families, professionals and the local community). It can be considered as a tool to globally rethink initial and continuing education and training in a systemic perspective.

Exploring early childhood education in China: background, development and current issues

Xiaofei Qi

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

China has put great efforts into developing early childhood education and care services. Since 2010 the policy priority has been to develop early childhood education services for 3�6-year-old children before school entry. Evidence of the rapid development of early childhood education in China can be seen in the impressive development of policy, the increase in public investment and the boom in kindergarten participation rates. The demand for qualified early childhood education practitioners is also increasing in China. Private kindergartens are playing a very important role in providing early childhood education services due to the lack of public services. Despite the great progress already made, the development of early childhood education in China is unbalanced and inadequate in terms of its regional and social disparities. There is a huge gap between advanced ideas and kindergarten practices. The consequences of the new two-child policy present a big challenge to the development of early childhood education, and these should be prepared for in advance in terms of providing �Ssufficient⬝ early childhood education services, as well as �Shigh-quality⬝ services to young children and their families.

Socio-cultural values provided to pre-school children using traditional children games

Mustafa Yeniasır; Burak Gökbulut

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

With the development of technology, traditional games which had an essential place in the lives of children began to lose their importance and were replaced by computer games. An examination of developed countries shows that their unique traditional games are being protected and, thanks to conscious families are nurtured by national values; thus, they serve an extremely important function in terms of shaping national conscience. The value of traditional children�"s games can be better understood considering the possibility that especially pre-school children can be affected by the artificial and virtual culture imposed by technological devices. Pre-school period is a period when value education in children begins. Information on values is gained at every stage of life. However, the earliest information is acquired through traditional games in the period when personality begins to develop. In this study, 25 children were presented with Cypriot Turkish children�"s games such as hide-and-seek, house, blind man�"s buff, dodge ball and duck duck goose. Then children were urged to play these games and observations were made which was followed by interviews with children to obtain their opinions on games and game processes. In the study, it was seen that children acquired several values required by social life such as respect, courtesy, helping each other, courage, love, protection, honesty, forgiveness, respect for the environment, patience, and obeying rules.

Evaluation of aesthetic listening skills of pre-school children

Selma Korkmaz

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

It is a widely-known reality that a child who has aesthetic listening skills becomes more successful when the �Sknowledge-gathering⬝ phase begins. The objective of this study is to explore whether pre-school children have �Saesthetic listening skill⬝ and their success in predicting, summarizing and relating strategies which are �Saesthetic listening strategies⬝. The study was conducted based on qualitative research approach as a result of which holistic single-case pattern, which is a case-study method, was employed. The study group consisted of 30 children at the age of 5 who were enrolled at pre-school classes under TRNC Ministry of National Education, 1 Turkish language educator, 2 Turkish language teachers, 1 Pre-school educator and 2 Pre-school teachers. Observation technique was used in data collection process and the success of children was measured by asking 3 questions. The data obtained from observation and achievement tests were analyzed using content analysis. In conclusion, it can be claimed that the predicting skills of both girls and boys is developed. However, their summarizing and relating skills are weaker. For this reason, different activities which would improve these skills should be included in pre-school education.

Response to Intervention in Kindergarten: supporting foundational and comprehension skills with supplemental instruction

Carmen Sherry Brown

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

Response to Intervention (RtI) is a multi-tier approach to the early identification and support of students with learning needs. Although there is not a single definition or agreed-upon way of implementing RtI, the key features of this approach involve gathering information on students�" skills to help teachers plan and organize instruction, providing evidence-based interventions and supports, and monitoring student progress in learning (Gersten et al., 2008). The Institute of Education Service (IES) published practice guides to offer educators specific evidence-based recommendations for supporting reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. These guides were used as a framework to plan and implement instructional activities that were intended to support the literacy development of students in a kindergarten class.

Exploring early childhood education in China: background, development and current issues

Xiaofei Qi

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

China has put great efforts into developing early childhood education and care services. Since 2010 the policy priority has been to develop early childhood education services for 3�6-year-old children before school entry. Evidence of the rapid development of early childhood education in China can be seen in the impressive development of policy, the increase in public investment and the boom in kindergarten participation rates. The demand for qualified early childhood education practitioners is also increasing in China. Private kindergartens are playing a very important role in providing early childhood education services due to the lack of public services. Despite the great progress already made, the development of early childhood education in China is unbalanced and inadequate in terms of its regional and social disparities. There is a huge gap between advanced ideas and kindergarten practices. The consequences of the new two-child policy present a big challenge to the development of early childhood education, and these should be prepared for in advance in terms of providing �Ssufficient⬝ early childhood education services, as well as �Shigh-quality⬝ services to young children and their families.

Situational and personal interaction quality between the caregiver and the child using the GlnA-E evaluation tool

Dörte Weltzien; Janina Eva Strohmer

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

The GlnA-E Evaluation Tool ("Gestaltung von Interaktonsgelegenheiten im Alltag-Evaluation"; see Weltzien et al., 2017) represents the improved version of a video-based observational and reflective tool for research projects in everyday practice. This paper first presents an overview of the theoretical constructs and features (scale and item properties) of GlnA-E's three scales. It then offers situational and personal correlatives of interaction quality in everyday teaching. It turns out that the tool can be employed for a wide range of settings, group situations, and age ranges, and that the caregivers�" interaction-related skills vary widely. A slight positive impact on interaction quality was observed for interactions with younger children (up to four years of age) and so-called "onlookers".

The role of problem-based Mathematics teaching according to the Kirkpatrick's Model on problem-solving performance of mathematics teachers

Somayeh Karimi; Ahmad Shahvarani; Majid Haghverdi

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages -

The process of evaluation is essentially the process of determining the realization of the educational goals in real terms through curriculum and education and represents the changes that occur in human behavior. Therefore, it is necessary that at the end of each training course (such as training classes, workshops, and training seminars), the teacher or evaluators, evaluate the implemented training program. In the curriculum approaches, learning the problem-solving ability is the ultimate goal of mathematics education. This skill requires empowering teachers with problem solving skills as one of the optimal ways to use capacities and to achieve educational goals. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to examine the problem-based mathematics teaching according to the Krikpatrick's model on problem-solving performance of mathematics teachers. The research design was of a pretest-posttest type with a control group. Using simple random sampling method, 100 male and female mathematics teachers, teaching mathematics at the middle school, were selected from Rabat Karim city, Tehran province. In pre-test and post-test of the traditional teaching and problem-solving based teaching in mathematics, data were collected through mathematical problem-solving performance test and Kirkpatrick's four-level questionnaire. Using SPSS software and R software, the results showed a significant difference between the scores of problem-solving performances between the two groups of control and experiment after the training, and through the equations, we showed that each level of the Kirkpatrick's model has a positive effect on the post-test scores of mathematics teachers

Response to Intervention in Kindergarten: supporting foundational and comprehension skills with supplemental instruction

Carmen Sherry Brown

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2019, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages -

Response to Intervention (RtI) is a multi-tier approach to the early identification and support of students with learning needs. Although there is not a single definition or agreed-upon way of implementing RtI, the key features of this approach involve gathering information on students�" skills to help teachers plan and organize instruction, providing evidence-based interventions and supports, and monitoring student progress in learning (Gersten et al., 2008). The Institute of Education Service (IES) published practice guides to offer educators specific evidence-based recommendations for supporting reading skills to students in kindergarten through 3rd grade. These guides were used as a framework to plan and implement instructional activities that were intended to support the literacy development of students in a kindergarten class.

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