Online ISSN: 1989-9572

Issue 2,

Issue 2

Budapest 2011 revisited An Enterprising Europe or a journey too far?

Malcolm Hoare

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

The paper considers the implications for European schools and colleges of the strategic decisions taken at the High Level Entrepreneurship Education conference in Budapest $in April 2011. Particular focus is given to the impact in these organisations on the institutional culture and pedagogy necessary to implement the changes indicated by the so called Budapest Agenda. The concept of the entrepreneurial school is introduced as a prerequisite for change and a strategy for designing appropriate teacher professional development is outlined.

Entrepreneurial teacher training in Europe: an overview of European policies and developments

Dana T. Redford

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

In regard to the current context of Entrepreneurship Education in Europe, the majority of countries are in a process of educational reform. Among their objectives is to strengthen entrepreneurship education in a perspective of lifelong learning across all educational levels. The challenges presented in teaching entrepreneurship require significant changes in the way teachers themselves are educated. This chapter starts with the baseline goal of improving entrepreneurship education and training as set out by the European Commission. It highlights the challenges that are faced in fostering an entrepreneurial attitude in educational institutions and, in particular the need to support teachers through training programs that pursue a long-term policy commitment that is both creative and well-conceived. Entrepreneurship education is still an up-and-coming subject in teacher education. Nevertheless, experience and good practice indicate that when this type of training is offered the concept and the innovative methods associated with entrepreneurship are quickly adapted to the educational necessities of students.

Entrepreneurial teaching & entrepreneurial teachers

Mustafa Z. Altan

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

We live in a time of unprecedented social, economic, technological and environmental problems and desperately are in need of change and improvement in many different areas on a global scale. Present education systems are fundamentally based on Verbal/Linguistic and Mathematical/Logical Intelligences, defined as IQ, and as a result focus mainly on the functions of the left brain. These systems aim at acquiring similar skills and passing the courses and as a result provide advantages to those who already have an advanced level of these intelligences in their profiles of intelligences. Since these systems assess individuals via standardized and centrally performed tests, they never help individuals to question, to think, be creative, take risks and think critically. The answer to all these concerns is entrepreneurial teaching and teachers. Entrepreneurial teaching which takes individual differences into account and is based on alternative assessment systems has the power to be the ultimate solution to overcome present obstacles of education systems. Entrepreneurial teaching implemented by entrepreneurial teachers has a potential power to help the world create economic growth, jobs, innovation and raise happy citizens capable of finding solutions for many long-lasting and ever-growing global issues in all sectors. This paper focuses on explaining how individual differences and alternative assessment techniques could be used by entrepreneurial teachers to implement entrepreneurial teaching.

Opportunities for entrepreneurship education in an era of curriculum change in Ireland: the case of an innovative Irish second level school

Morgan P. Danaher; Gerard M. Slattery

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

The research paper highlights a robust model of a pilot Entrepreneurship Education (EE) programme for the new junior cycle curriculum, capable of extended implementation across all years of second level education. The research focus was on how an EE programme could be credibly devised, given the fragmented history of its emergence over recent years. The study identified the key elements of its conceptualisation and structure, to implement it as an integral and holistic contribution to a sustainable EE input. A pilot programme in a flagship school- Innovation,  Creativity and Entrepreneurship (ICE) which received the full endorsement of the National Council for Curriculum and Assessment body (NCCA) was examined. Semi-structured interviews took place with all the key designers and implementers of ICE. The findings suggest a novel and credible way to integrate EE into the full curriculum, something unprecedented in Ireland. Necessary supports to achieve this were acknowledged: the link between school culture and an innovative disposition; national validation through the NCCA; links with a diversity of enabling partners; credible CPD and training opportunities; and finally, an objective assessment method for the programme. The study highlights the crucial importance of a broad yet precise definition of EE in line with Irish and EU parameters that will lead to credible learning outcomes for individual students, the economy and society as a whole.

Education for Entrepreneurship An experience report in a Higher Education Institution

Cristina Maria Gonçalves Pereira; Margarida de Carvalho e Silva Afonso; Domingos Fernando da Cunha Santos

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

The concept of entrepreneurship is currently assumed to be a cross competence, fundamental for human, social and economic development. However, it has traditionally been associated with economic and business areas, although we have been witnessing a gradual change this design. In the last decade there has been a growing defense role of education in development of entrepreneurial skills, as these can and should be learned and developed very early. This appreciation of the role of education in development of entrepreneurial skills prints a new responsibility to educational institutions, particularly to higher education. It is precisely the entrepreneurial education in higher education that this article talks. The article gives the example of two centers (Learning and Development Center for Children - CeADIn; Science, Tradition & Culture Center - CT&C), from the same institution of higher education, albeit with different organizational structure, strategies, have some common points as they wish to educating for entrepreneurship, both children, youth and adults, involving in this process the students of teachers education courses.

Lenseignement de lentreprenariat à lUniversité de Reims Champagne Ardenne, des approches en tension

Emmanuelle Leclercq

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

Après avoir resitué le contexte national et local sur l�"évolution de l�"entreprenariat auprès des publics étudiants nous soulignerons ce qui fait l�"originalité de cet enseignement à l�"université de Reims Champagne Ardenne. Plusieurs conceptions de cet enseignement semblent s�"opposer dans les différentes formations sur le contenu, l�"encadrement, l�"accompagnement des étudiants

Present and future of social entrepreneurship: alternative theories and research

Ingrid del Valle García Carreño

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

The process of creating new value is central to the field of entrepreneurship. Social entrepreneurship has led to an emerging stream of research that is of interest to researchers and academics in management, strategic management, and entrepreneurship. To understand theories on social entrepreneurship, two internally consistent theories are presented describing how entrepreneurial opportunities are formed, and the discovery theory and creation theory are described. The implications of these theories are listed, along with a discussion of some of their broader theoretical implications for the fields of entrepreneurship and strategic management. Within the field of social entrepreneurship an emerging area of investigation can be found in the entrepreneurship and not-for-profit marketing literatures. A review of the literature in a number of domains reveals that it is fragmented and that there is no coherent theoretical framework. In particular, current conceptualizations of social entrepreneurship fail to adequately consider the unique characteristics of social entrepreneurs and the context within which they must operate. This paper addresses the implications for social entrepreneurship theory and management practice, and discusses policy directions.

Value contribution of immigrants to society through entrepreneurship

Miguel Osorio García de Oteyza; Alfonso Urquiza Echevarren; Rosana Rodríguez Gómez

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

Immigration today is a reality that is transforming the social and economic landscape, particularly in some European developed countries as in Spain. Moreover, Entrepreneurship is considered as a key driver in today�xs economy recovery processes, particularly in relation to the innovative, change searching and opportunity seeker nature of entrepreneurs. Despite these facts, very little academia research has been published to date on the relationship effects between Immigration and Entrepreneurship. The main objective of this article is to analyze the differential values that immigrants introduce in the entrepreneurship process, starting with the motivation and discovery of the opportunity (Fiet and Patel, 2008), business start up (use of resources) and further economic and job creation effects associated to new business developments. Our approach starts with a comprehensive review of the different approaches and definitions associated to Entrepreneurship, considering that this process has not been yet defined as a basic and fundamental term (Fernandez, 2012). This review will be the basis for a wide analysis of immigrant Entrepreneurship reality, including motivations, abilities and specific challenges to achieve success.

Entrepreneurship education in Andalusia. An embedded approach

Francisco Liñán; José Fernández; Juan A. Martínez -Román

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

When evaluating the relevance of actions within the area of entrepreneurship education, the quite remarkable national and regional differences regarding entrepreneurial culture, entrepreneurial potential and, of course, the business structure, have to be taken into account. Based on these differences, there is a need to specifically design entrepreneurial education policies which take into account the strengths and weaknesses of the business structure of each region. This paper aims to identify the structural characteristics of the Andalusian entrepreneurial model in comparison with that of other Spanish regions. To do this, a database of over 1000 companies have been used coming from the Research Project (Ref. P09- SEJ -4857) carried out by the "SMEs and economic development" research group (SEJ -128) of the University of Seville. This information will also be complemented with regional reports from the GEM project. From these two data sources, an eminently qualitative profile of the structural weaknesses of existing businesses and their entrepreneurs in Andalusia will be established. From this analysis of regional needs, we will raise our differential proposition for an embedded education towards entrepreneurship. It will identify and include the content and pedagogical techniques necessary to overcome these weaknesses of the regional business community.

To their own or to their fate? About the competitive small business and its entrepreneur

Carlos Alex de Cantuária Cypriano

Journal for Educators, Teachers and Trainers, 2015, Volume 6, Issue 2, Pages -

Recently, entrepreneurship and small business have been highly regarded as triggering factors of social and economic development. It�"s necessary a deeper understanding of the causes, possible consequences and interests related to this process as well as its characterization as a specific field of knowledge and as a teaching and research academic object. Entrepreneurship, considered as a specific individual inclination, is misleadingly conceived as being able to render the small entreprise competitive in the contemporary capitalism arena. The objective of this paper is not to criticize the small business nor the entrepreneur in themselves, but the ideologic meaning that structures the several discourses that conform that agent and his �Sthinking style⬝. The relative weights that compose the institutionalized image of the object � the work and its author � were identified and evaluated. The results showed the importance granted to certain aspects such as disposition to risk, creative ability, and adaptation to scenery changes touted as being �Snaturals⬝. Other aspects underlay along the process, such as the assumption by the individual of all responsibility for what happens in his entrepreneurial action, and the legitimation of the functionality of the small enterprise concerning the systemic reproduction of contemporary capitalism.